Sunday, May 24, 2020

Understanding the Importance of an Innovation - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1757 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Education Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Effective innovation can help organization to transform poor businesses into world great leaders. The ability of the organizations to manage innovation is a key step towards the organization competence in the environment. In todays era organizations are required to keep tools that can help organization for the relationship and knowledge exchange of innovation not only in their boundaries but also towards the collaboration across organizations. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Understanding the Importance of an Innovation" essay for you Create order Innovation is one of the best ways to grow economies providing the organizations with the ability to adapt the change and keep on growing (Dooley OSullivan 2007). To innovate on a regular basis organizations have to acquire a strong knowledge capability through a qualified workforce that can manage innovation. The strategies used to manage innovation also depend on the size of the different organization. As large organizations have easy access to the conventional factors such as skilled workers, better knowledge infrastructure, and better technology as compared to the small organizations. On the other hand small organizations have also got their strengths in factors like trust, homogeneity which can help small organizations to find innovation as productive means to develop in the growing world. To maximize knowledge spillovers in an organization localization and urbanization effects can be used to strengthen the economy by innovation (Therrien 2005) It has been widely accepted that innovation is amongst the major roads for the organizations to survive in this competitive world of today and to achieve sustainable development path. Knowledge has always played an important part for helping the organization to gain competitive advantage in the market over its competitors. The increase in the learning capacity is an important for an organization as they can get the modern technology from the other organizations but before that they should the way to use it more effectively and efficiently for their use. (Varbalane, Dyker Tamm 2007) According to Smith (2008) Studies have found out that there are several factors which influence the innovation and few are discussed below: Technology which is often defined as an output of the innovation. Technology helps in to facilitate innovation. Organization structure: it is also an important factor influencing the innovation in organizations. It relates to the configuration of an organization and how it impac ts on an organizations ability to manage change in a more effective manner. Organization culture: it relates to the values and beliefs of the people of the organization and how can this impact on the innovation management of an organization. In this section it considers when organizations undergo collaboration to determine the risks they can face. Employees: employees of an organization also have a great influence on the innovation in the organization because of the different personal characteristics of different people in the organization. Knowledge: it relates to knowledge available in an organization and how it can be used effectively for managing innovation in the organization. Management Style Leadership: it defines the way the upper management influences its employees and how the staff of an organization is motivated by the leader to adapt to the innovation change in an organization. Organizational change is defined as the adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization. There are some elements that are considered to be essentially present in the organization for it to implement the change successfully. If the organizations are missing any of the elements mentioned, the organization will fail to implement the change. The elements considered important for the change process are: Ideas: it is very hard for organizations to come up with new ideas in todays world otherwise they will be lagging behind in this competitive world. There should be creativity in the organizations which helps organization to respond to the better opportunities more effectively. Need: there should be a need for the organization otherwise the new ideas of the organizations are not going to be considered seriously which will result in failure of the change process in the organization. Adoption: the Managers and Employee have to be in agreement with each other to support change Implementation: it occurs when the organization actually starts using the n ew proposed idea. To make the implementation successful the organization has to provide support to the employees to overcome the problems which they are facing towards the new change which can be like providing training, new equipment to the employees. (Daft, 2007) According to Bell (2007) there are three forms of the technological capabilities that can help to promote creation, development and use of knowledge in efficient and effective manner. The three forms are as follows: Operating Production capabilities are defined as the sections which uses the knowledge that is closely related with the existing production capabilities and the facilities in the organization. These cannot be directly related to the creation of a new knowledge but they help in the creation of new technologies in association with the research and development management capabilities. Designer Engineering department are associated with the capabilities that uses the existing knowledge to transform i nto new, innovative configurations that can led to the development of a new production system. This is one of the capabilities that most of the developing economies are lacking and is the major drawback for the creation of new technology. Research Development capabilities that are used to create new technology. These capabilities of an organization provides a way for successful and commercialization of new knowledge.(Wamae 2009) It has been found through studies that development of technological capabilities requires a constant and complex process that is linked to the innovative efforts within the productive activities of an organization. The ways of learning that can create competitive skills includes two critical elements: Explicit learning: this is a process in which the staff is given specialized training inside or outside the firms. Learning by Doing: this can be achieved by doing the routine tasks but they do not add much too innovative capabilities of individual s in the organization while the other way to develop innovative capabilities is through practicing the innovative technology developing tasks which add much more to the innovative capabilities of an organization. (Wamae 2009) Its been found in management literature that some of the most dynamic innovators of the world work in collaborative network of alliances. They work in alliances through the liaisons that are the representative between the organizations to form a linkage between different organizations which otherwise are not connected to work together. The two distinctive innovative processes are called Knowledge Brokers and Technology Brokers. The broker acts as the intermediaries between the sources of new ideas and the potential users of those ideas in the innovative network (Winch Courtney 2007) Businesses which are serious about competing in the fast changing markets with fast changing technology must innovate otherwise they will be lagged behind in the line. Produc t innovation provides a important means for generating the revenues whereas the process innovation provides a mean for safeguarding and improving the quality. It also considers factors to save the costs related to the business and provide a better performance for the long term run of the business. In order to be the market champion an organization has to consider several factors which directly have an influence on the performance of the business. Organization has to consider factors like preferences of the customers, the likely reaction of the competitors and the core competencies of the business. So a business wanting to have good long run in the market have to consider all these factors carefully and have to be innovative (Johne 1999) Strategies According to Wang (2005) HRM strategies can help an organization to achieve higher performance through managing the innovation going in the organizations. There are many strategies which can be used to give rise to a better co-ordination working environment which relates to the outcome of an organization. It can make easy for the organizations to undergo innovation as they develop such an environment to provide better results in the organizations. Few strategies are discussed below: Personnel strategy: this strategy focuses on the HR practices which facilitate employees for high performance, providing motivation to the employees to work towards their goals; it also concentrates on enhancing their skills through team work and leadership. This can be achieved by training or supervising. System strategy: this strategy aims to get the communication channels structured in the organizations so that better decisions can be made and innovation can be handled more effectively. Orga nizational Strategy: this strategy emphasizes on the HR practices which encouraging team work, cross-cultural leadership qualities, and organizational development programs. Studies have shown that these strategies in organizations add towards the innovation management in organization. According to (Prajogo 2007) Order Qualifiers are those criteria that an organization has to meet before being considered as a supplier while on the other hand the order winners are those criteria that win the order over competition. As at present the market conditions have changed due to which the basis of competition also has been changed to a great extent. The globalization is increasing day by day and there are lots of changes taking place in the markets where competitive dimensions such as flexibility, responsiveness and particularly the innovation are being regarded as the order winners in the changing market of today. Conclusion It has been found that innovation for every business in the market is really important and organizations have to understand its importance. They have to implement various strategies in their organization to make them prepare for any change that can occur at any time. Ità ¢ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢s also been found that human resource of an organization are of real importance for the organization so they should be provided with adequate resources to learn and grow their skills which are an important factors to be considered for the innovation to be successful. In the end it found that innovation is crucial factor that all organizations have to consider to survive in this competing and changing world of today. Recommendations Organizations must innovate in this competing world to survive and grow. Organization structure and organization culture should be well maintained to manage innovation in a better way. Organizations should implement various training programs to provide their employees with better resources to learn and grow. (Varbalane, Dyker and Tamm 2007) Need to implement strategies with a long-term objective instead of short term financial objectives. The firms should be motivated to change and then should be supported for the process of building capabilities (Varbalane, Dyker and Tamm 2007). Human capital development which is an important factor should be considered carefully (Varbalane, Dyker and Tamm 2007). Adoption of better techniques to manage innovation

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Mental Health Awareness Across The United States - 1409 Words

May is Mental Health Awareness Month, a national initiative to spread awareness to the constituents of the United States. On April 28, 2016, President Obama issued a Proclamation addressing Mental Health Awareness across the United States. He declared: Nearly 44 million American adults, and millions of children, experience mental health conditions each year, including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress. This month, we renew our commitment to ridding our society of the stigma associated with mental illness, encourage those living with mental health conditions to get the help they need, and reaffirm our pledge to ensure those who need help have access to the support, acceptance, and resources†¦show more content†¦Together, we can help everyone get the support they need to recover as they continue along the journey to get well. Mental health is essential to a person’s overall health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined health as: â€Å"The state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Child and adolescent mental health problems are at a point of crisis for our nation. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has identified that one out of every ten children or adolescents has a serious mental health problem that interferes with daily functioning, and another 10% have mild to moderate problems and fewer than one in five of these children receive the mental health services they need. SAMHSA asserts that half of adult mental illness begins before the age of 14, and three-fourths before age 24. They go on to state that more than 40% of youth ages 13 to 17 have experienced a behavioral health problem by the time they reach seventh grade. Concluding that suicide is the third leading cause of death among youth ages 15 to 24 after accidents and homicide. The costs of failure to prove adequate services to children and adolescents with serious mental illnesses are well known: high rates of incarceration in juvenile facilities; family disrup tion; social isolation; school truancy and drop out; and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Free Essays

Oil and gas production, drilling, and trading is a big issue in the United States. Currently, much of the oil we use comes from foreign sources. Many argue that we should reduce foreign oil dependency by reducing our consumption and by drilling for oil right here in the U. We will write a custom essay sample on Arctic National Wildlife Refuge or any similar topic only for you Order Now S. For approximately forty years, a debate has been brewing about oil exploration and drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is 19,000,000 acres of land in northern Alaska, a U. S. state. It is the largest protected wilderness in the United States and was created by Congress under the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) of 1980†³ (Wikipedia Foundation, Inc) More specifically, within the ANWR, a 1,500,000 acre area located between the Beaufort Sea(northern border), Brooks Range (southern border), and the Prudhoe Bay (western border) is the center of controversy. This area is commonly referred to as section 1002 because when the ANILCA was created, in section 1002 of the document, the decision of how to manage oil and gas exploration and development for this area was tabled. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. ) There are various opinions with points for and against oil drilling in the ANWR’s section 1002. At this point, I am against it. I recently read a quote by U. S. , President, Barak Obama in Wikipedia. It states, â€Å"In a League of Conservation Voters questionnaire, Obama said, â€Å"I strongly reject drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge because it would irreversibly damage a protected national wildlife refuge without creating sufficient oil supplies to meaningfully affect the global market price or have a discernible impact on US energy security. † (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc) I have to say, I agree with President Obama 100%. This area is true wilderness. According to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, it is the most diverse ecosystem in northern Alaska. It is home to many Native Indian tribes, a large population of porcupine caribou, some large whales, and other smaller animals not popular elsewhere. Not to mention, it is on the coastal line of Alaska, which opens it up huge varieties of marine life and migrating birds from all over. Many people don’t realize that oil drilling is big business. It will not only require oil drilling equipment and stations, but there will be roads, airports, housing, shopping, etc. This means much of the land will forever be affected. Many animal habitats and natural migratory and breeding patterns may be disrupted. The air and water will be polluted from vehicle traffic, the oil drilling itself, and many other human behaviors. Human waste will need to be dealt with. You name it, it will be a problem. Another concern is the potential for accidental pollution. As a matter of fact, in 1989, there was a bill on the table and it looked like it might make it through the Senate, to allow the drilling, when the infamous Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska. It was the largest spill of its kind where 260,000 to 750,000 barrels of crude oil spilled out of the tanker and into the surrounding waters, killing and injuring countless wildlife and destroying their habitats. (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc) Lastly, experts are not even sure how much oil is even there. A U. S. Geological Survey published in 1998 stated there was between 5. 7 billion barrels to 16 billion barrels of recoverable oil and natural gas liquids the ANWR’s coastal plain area. As compared to an estimated 120 billion in the rest of the U. S. It is estimated that drilling in area 1002 would amount to about 1% world oil production by the year 2030. (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc) This would create such a small impact on the products and services generated at the end user level. In other words, the rich oil investors will get richer and people like me will be no better off. The benefits do not outweigh the risks. I say not to drilling in the ANWR! Works Cited Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Arctic Refuge drilling controversy. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Ed. 7 September 2012. Web. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Arctic_Refuge_drilling_controversy. 30 September 2012. How to cite Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Managerial Ethics free essay sample

This paper is a summary of my understanding of how ethics has helped base my belief  system on a personal level as well as in the workplace as a professional. The learning  process is perpetual and the recent class on Managerial ethics has given me new insightson how I can still hold onto my own values while remaining respectful to those whovalue different ethical perspectives. Ethics can be defined as a philosophical study of moral values based on the concept of  right and wrong. An ethical perspective could be considered as a person’s individual  perception of moral values, beliefs, and rules based on his or her personal view of rightand wrong. My perspective on Ethics Ethics are a very important aspect of the success of an individual or a company. There are many decisions within a company that managers must base around thecompany’s ethical standards. Ethics are not only a guideline to employee and employer  Ã‚  behavior, but also the company’s behavior as a whole. Possessing good, strong ethics willhelp a company attract and keep customers. Without ethics, there would be no way for a  person to judge right from wrong, which is why it is important to have a good sense of  Ã‚  personal ethics awareness. My ethical perspective is obligation or deontology-one that is centered on a feeling asthough I have an obligation to do what is right. When judging whether or not a person’sactions are ethical or not, I tend to base my decisions on the intent of the person’s actionsand not the actual outcome,In order for a person with the obligation perspective to agree with a person or company’sethics, the ethics set in place should be suitable in every situation, respectful toeveryone’s character, and promoting of every individual’s freedom and independence. With an obligatory perspective, a person believes that everyone deserves respect and theright to make their own decisions. A few more ethical perspectives encountered in our workplaceVirtue Perspective A person possessing the character or virtue perspective does not believe that everyone iscapable of making their own decisions. This perspective is based on the belief that a  person must possess good character in order to make an ethical decision. Those with thevirtue perspective believe that a person’s character is by far, more important than a  person’s actions. No matter what a person’s intentions are, someone with the virtue  perspective does not believe that they are ethical unless they are constantly striving to bemorally good. Ethical decision making within this perspective is based on thedevelopment of practical wisdom within individuals. The perspective based on virtuedoes not believe that a person’s actions reflect their ethics; however, the utilitarianism  perspective believes just the opposite. Utilitarianism perspective A person possessing the results or utilitarianism view tends to base their ethical  perspective solely on the results of their actions. This perspective believes that their  ethical decisions should benefit as many individuals as possible. When debating over  whether or not a decision is ethical, those with utilitarianism views must see results. Theyrefuse to believe anything that they hear until it is proven to them. A person with this  perspective believes that all people deserve to have a good life; if someone is unhappy,they believe that something should be done in order to correct that. A person with theutilitarianism perspective believes that there is a solution to every ethical dilemma. Relativism perspective The equity or relativism perspective is based on the unpredictability of human awareness. The decision of whether an action or decision is ethical is based on the consequences thatthe decision has brought. A person with the relativism perspective does not believe inunity or equality among individuals. They also believe that there is no definite right or  wrong in any situation; they believe that with new knowledge and differentcircumstances, a person may find it necessary to change their point of view and beliefs. No matter what perspective a person holds when dealing with ethics, there will always beethical dilemmas that a person will be forced to face. While holding the deontology  perspective, I believe that everyone deserves respect from others. This can make it verydifficult to agree with some decisions that may be made within my company. Who decides what is right or wrong? A person’s view of right and wrong will differ from others, as will their beliefs of  whether or not all people can make decisions that benefit their own personal interests. Many of us were taught at a young age the golden rule, Do unto others as you wouldhave them do unto you. This is a very solid rule that we all seem to get away from, timeto time. Many of us were told fables and wives tales, or ethical narratives as we now callthem, that taught us how to live and interact with others. But where do we learn the rulesthat these fables didnt teach us, like, when is it appropriate to alter nature? Who decideswhat is right and correct there? Is there any common ground on issues like resurrectingextinct animals, cloning, or the human genome project? This brings us the field of applied ethics-an area in ethics that deals with how one shouldreact in specific situations, and especially with how our social policies ought to beformed to ensure the most balanced ethical standards. Learning about the different perspectives of ethics is a very important aspect of career  success. By knowing what category I fall under based on my answers in the EthicsAwareness Inventory, I can better understand my own decisions and beliefs. Having thisknowledge will come in very helpful when working with others that hold different  perspectives. Companies perspective on ethical practices today In the workplace, ethics and social corporate responsibly is a guide to decision-makingand fair treatment of employees and consumers. Ethical behavior, at its most basic level, is what most people in a given society or groupview as being moral, good, or right. Some societies emphasize moral conduct based onabstract moral principles, the violation of which is expected to cause feelings of guilt. Itis important to understand that what is right and wrong is not always easy to determineas there is no universally accepted code of behavior to aid decision makers. Knowledgeof the home market and foreign markets is essential to arriving at ones own behavior  code for each situation faced. No management can ignore the environment in which itoperates and the success of organizations may depend to a large extent upon their publicimage The attitude of management to labor is at the core of the social responsibility of  management. Ethics for me in Personal life The family is described as the natural and fundamental group unit of society and isentitled to protection by society and the State. Personal relations in family is one of themost important elements of personal development and maturity of a personality. We livein a multicultural society based on different values and traditions. If a bond between parents and children is broken, it can lead to negative consequencestraumatic for both. Thus in many cultures, family is a keeper of traditions and values,social norms and behavior patterns Ethics for me at my workplace The potential impact of my values in the workplace may be both, positive and negative. The positive side would be that by treating others with dignity and respect might help  better the employee surroundings. In turn this may help those employees decide on howto treat others, because they enjoy being treated respectfully and with dignity. Another positive example occurs when my values and ethics guide me to treat thecustomers in a respectful and honest manner. Doing so will ensure my integrity as a  business professional and while allowing me to gain the trust of the customers. Thiswould increase my performance. Offering a product or service in which I believe that  performs as expected, will give me a sense of pride on what I am doing. On the negative side, having to be deceptive with the public or the customers in order tomeet sales goals or quotas would decrease my performance on the workplace Conclusion Before beginning this class , ethics was not something that I gave much consideration toeven though it was already a part of my daily life. During the course conducted by Father  Paul, I have learned there is an importance in managing ethics on a personal level as wellas in the workplace as a professional. Ethics hold tremendous benefits for organizationsand its employees, both moral and practical. The principle of sustainability takes a larger worldview and strives to take futuregeneration into consideration, and to live with the awareness that present actions make animpact on others . It takes a larger worldview into consideration and its emphasis aresocial integrity, stability and improvement in the quality of life.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Red and Mark Rothko Essay Example

Red and Mark Rothko Paper Roger Kimball’s essay â€Å"Inventing Mark Rothko† begins simply with a quote from Hamlet in which the Queen responds to Hamlet’s inquiry â€Å"Do you see nothing here? † by saying â€Å"Nothing at all; yet all that is I see† (Kimball 55). This enigmatic quote very succinctly sums up the enigma that is Mark Rothko, a Russia-American representative painter of New York School from 1950s to 1960s. Rothko’s signature style is distinctive combination of â€Å"abstractness, simplicity, and sensuous color† (Kimball 59) and misty rectangular fields of color and light. Although many critics, like Harold Rosenberg, disagree, Rothko fought the idea that his works were abstract for the entirety of his artistic career. To reference the quote from Hamlet, what did Rothko see in his art? What was his intention? Are these questions possible to answer? Using John Logan’s play Red as well as Rothko’s own essays on art and aesthetics, both a picture of Rothko’s vision and a rationalization of his insistence that his art is realism are possible to create and it is apparent that Rothko intended a separation between the art and the viewer and for the art to exist as an independent entity separate from human emotion that places art in the realm of abstraction. Yet in the documentary film Rothkos Rooms, ironically, Rothko also envisioned his art causing â€Å"the same religious experience as I had when I painted them† (Rooms). We will write a custom essay sample on Red and Mark Rothko specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Red and Mark Rothko specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Red and Mark Rothko specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It seems that, according to Rothko himself, what a viewer sees in a painting or what emotions the painting evokes has no bearing on the painting itself. These emotions within the admirer of art are often placed upon the art itself as a way to define the art. However, Rothko might argue that one is not able to define his paintings any more than one might be able to objectively define a human being (Rothko 63). The art itself is the evoker of emotions not the other way around. Rothko seems to have argued that his art has a specific, concrete meaning, which can be explained by the similarity between admiring the beauty of a woman and the beauty of a painting. Rothko wrote that the problem with speaking of art qualitatively—for instance giving a painting the quality â€Å"beautiful†Ã¢â‚¬â€creates a category for beauty itself to exist (Rothko 62). However, Kimball argues that beauty, like the concepts of â€Å"truth† and â€Å"morality† is an abstraction itself because these terms are â€Å"apart from concrete existence† (Kimball 60). He also argues that Rothko’s classic paintings are immediate (Kimball 60) because their meanings are concrete—they are purposed. Rothko’s paintings, Rothko himself might argue, exist with the force of human existence. In the Scene 4 of John Logan’s play the Red, Rothko yells at his assistant Ken, â€Å"you know the problem with those painters? It’s exactly what you said. They are painting for this moment right now. And that’s all. It’s nothing but zeitgeist art† (Logan 33). This representation of Rothko shows how Rothko himself might have differentiated his own art from the art of painters like Andy Warhol. Based on Rothko’s essay The Artists Dilemma and this quote from Logan’s play, Rothko would have argued that paintings like those of Warhol’s are the real abstractions because they are based on a particular moment in time. An individual moment, alienated from the whole history of time, is truly apart from concrete existence. Existence is more the totality of time, space, and history and Rothkos paintings are, as he seems to have suggested, as purposed as any living creature. In â€Å"The De-definition of Art† by Harold Rosenberg, he argues against this idea, saying that â€Å"[Rothko’s] were the first ‘empty’ paintings by an American to make an impact on the public, perhaps because his emotionally charged reds, blues, browns, black-greens succeeded in stirring up feelings—awe, anguish, release—too deeply buried to be brought to the surface by visual metaphors† (Rosenberg 105). With this definition, Rosenberg argues that the viewer and the painting itself are interconnected and the painting can hold no objective existence independent of the viewer. When the audience views the painting and experiences these emotions, it attaches these emotions to the painting. However, Rothko argued that to speak of art in this way—qualitatively—is to give these emotions themselves an independent existence (Rothko 62). Rosenberg called Rothko’s style an â€Å"all-embracing symbolic format† (Rosenberg 107). Rosenberg essentially equated Rothko’s paintings with a literary metaphor in which one thing—a painting in this instance—stands for something wholly different, acting as a symbol. Most dictionaries agree on the definition of the word â€Å"symbol† as a physical object that stands for an abstraction or a sign with some specific meaning. Rosenberg’s terminology may then not be totally off kilter. Does not Rothko himself argue that paintings often evoke particular abstract feelings in the admirer? In this way, are not paintings like symbols, standing in as physical objects for abstract emotions? —not exactly. To view art in this way is to say that the artist intended for an artwork to be symbolic of, let’s say, the sublime. Yet, the viewers, experiencing a piece for the first time, come naked in their emotions as a child experiencing the world for the first time. Whatever emotions the viewer might feel are a product of their own mind rather than a product of the art itself. This is where Rosenberg is most incorrect and where he diverges from Rothko’s apology of his art.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

History of Gamelan Indonesian Music and Dance

History of Gamelan Indonesian Music and Dance Across Indonesia, but particularly on the islands of Java and Bali, gamelan is the most popular form of traditional music. A gamelan ensemble consists of a variety of metal percussion instruments, usually made of bronze or brass, including xylophones, drums, and gongs. It may also feature bamboo flutes, wooden stringed instruments, and vocalists, but the focus is on the percussion. The name gamelan comes from gamel, a Javanese word for a type of hammer used by a blacksmith. Gamelan instruments are often made of metal, and many are played with hammer-shaped mallets, as well. Although metal instruments are expensive to make, compared with those of wood or bamboo, they will not mold or deteriorate in Indonesias hot, steamy climate. Scholars suggest that this may be one of the reasons that gamelan developed, with its signature metallic sound. Where and when was gamelan invented? How has it changed over the centuries? Origins of Gamelan Gamelan seems to have developed early in the history of what is now Indonesia. Unfortunately, however, we have very few good sources of information from the early period. Certainly, gamelan seems to have been a feature of court life during the 8th to 11th centuries, among the Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms of Java, Sumatra, and Bali. For example, the great Buddhist monument of Borobudur, in central Java, includes a bas-relief depiction of a gamelan ensemble from the time of the Srivijaya Empire, c. 6th-13th centuries CE. The musicians play stringed instruments, metal drums, and flutes. Of course, we do not have any record of what the music these musicians were playing sounded like, sadly. Classical Era Gamelan During the 12th to 15th centuries, the Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms began to leave more complete records of their doings, including their music. Literature from this era mentions the gamelan ensemble as an important element of court life, and further relief carvings on various temples support the importance of metal percussion music during this period. Indeed, members of the royal family and their courtiers were all expected to learn how to play gamelan and were judged on their musical accomplishments as much as their wisdom, bravery, or physical appearance. The Majapahit Empire (1293-1597) even had a government office in charge of supervising the performing arts, including gamelan. The arts office oversaw the construction of musical instruments, as well as scheduling performances at the court. During this period, inscriptions and bas-reliefs from Bali show that the same types of musical ensembles and instruments were prevalent there as in Java; this is not surprising since both islands were under the control of the Majapahit emperors. During the Majapahit era, the gong made its appearance in Indonesian gamelan. Likely imported from China, this instrument joined other foreign additions such as stitched-skin drums from India and bowed strings from Arabia in some types of gamelan ensembles. The gong has been the longest-lasting and most influential of these imports. Music and the Introduction of Islam During the 15th century, the people of Java and many other Indonesian islands gradually converted to Islam, under the influence of Muslim traders from the Arabian peninsula and south Asia. Fortunately for gamelan, the most influential strain of Islam in Indonesia was Sufism, a mystical branch that values music as one of the pathways to experiencing the divine. Had a more legalistic brand of Islam been introduced, it might have resulted in the extinction of gamelan in Java and Sumatra. Bali, the other major center of gamelan, remained predominantly Hindu. This religious schism weakened the cultural ties between Bali and Java, although trade continued between the islands throughout the 15th to 17th centuries. As a result, the islands developed different forms of gamelan. Balinese gamelan began to emphasize virtuosity and quick tempos, a trend later encouraged by Dutch colonists. In keeping with Sufi teachings, Javas gamelan tended to be slower in tempo and more meditative or trance-like. European Incursions In the mid-1400s, the first European explorers reached Indonesia, intent on elbowing their way into the rich Indian Ocean spice and silk trade. The first to arrive were the Portuguese, who started out with small-scale coastal raids and piracy but managed to capture the key straits at Malacca in 1512. The Portuguese, along with the Arab, African, and Indian slaves they brought with them, introduced a new variety of music into Indonesia. Known as kroncong, this new style combined gamelan-like intricate and interlocking musical patterns with western instrumentation, such as the ukulele, cello, guitar, and violin. Dutch Colonization and Gamelan In 1602, a new European power made its way into Indonesia. The powerful Dutch East India Company ousted the Portuguese and began to centralize power over the spice trade. This regime would last until 1800 when the Dutch crown took over directly. Dutch colonial officials left only a few good descriptions of gamelan performances. Rijklof van Goens, for example, noted that the king of Mataram, Amangkurat I (r. 1646-1677), had an orchestra of between thirty and fifty instruments, primarily gongs. The orchestra played on Mondays and Saturdays when the king entered the court for a type of tournament. van Goens describes a dance troupe, as well, of between five and nineteen maidens, who danced for the king to the gamelan music. Gamelan in Post-Independence Indonesia Indonesia became fully independent of the Netherlands in 1949. The new leaders had the unenviable task of creating a nation-state out of a collection of different islands, cultures, religions, and ethnic groups. The Sukarno regime established publicly-funded gamelan schools during the 1950s and 1960s, in order to encourage and sustain this music as one of the national art forms of Indonesia. Some Indonesians objected to this elevation of a musical style associated primarily with Java and Bali as a national art form; in a multiethnic, multicultural country, of course, there are no universal cultural properties. Today, gamelan is an important feature of shadow puppet shows, dances, rituals, and other performances in Indonesia. Although stand-alone gamelan concerts are unusual, the music may also be heard frequently on the radio. Most Indonesians today have embraced this ancient musical form as their national sound. Sources: Bali and Beyond: A History of Gamelan.Gamelan: Venerable Lake of Honey, University of MichiganJavanese Gamelan: A History of Gamelan MusicSpiller, Henry. Gamelan: The Traditional Sounds of Indonesia, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, 2004.Sumarsam. Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Integrated management system Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Integrated management system - Essay Example According to Griffith (1999), an integrated management system (IMS) is ‘the organizational structure, resources and procedures used to plan, monitor and control project quality, safety and environment’. The need for an integrated management system has been felt basically because of considering the adoption of an Environment Management System (EMS) and/or an Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OH&SMS) besides a Quality Management System (QMS), as per the business and industry requirements (Stamou, 2003), as Figure 1 depicts the centre of an Integrated Management System and examples of standards through which the integration can be attained. An IMS is shown situated at the centre of the three systems, adopting common features of all the three management systems. As all standards have been securely implemented in the marketplace of different industry sectors, the certification organisations are in favour of an integrated approach wherein a company has a single management system in place in stead of many systems functioning individually showing allegiance to many standards at a time. Having independent management systems under the command of different independent management teams, according to certification agencies, is a risky proposition as each management system would take the organisation in a different direction making the focus on company objectives blurred. Only integration can solve the problem by bringing cohesiveness in the implementation of different standards (Dr. Brewer et al. 2005). An integrated management system fulfills the needs of any organisation, of any size and sector, assimilating the elements of two or more management systems into single unitary system by maintaining and following documentation, policies, procedures and processes holistically. Those organizations already into a single established management system are more prone to and